70 years of hard work, 70 years of trials and hardships, the beginning of 70 did not change, 70 years of hard work. In the past 70 years, new China has developed from the poor and weak country into the second largest economy in the world. The historical strength of the comprehensive national strength has attracted the attention of the world. In the past 70 years, China's textile industry has grown from weak to strong, and has developed into the largest textile and garment producer, consumer and exporter in the world, supporting the smooth operation of the world textile industry system. In the past 70 years, the textile industry has achieved all-round and pioneering development. Profound and fundamental changes have taken place. As a powerful force to enrich the people, a pioneer in opening to the outside world, a stabilizer in economic development, and a pioneer in reform and opening up, we have presented our country with high quality achievements.
In the establishment of new China, the textile industry established a pillar industry status, maintained stable and healthy development track for many years, played a stabilizing role in the great economic fluctuation, and remained a pillar industry in the national economic system. It played an important role in the process of industrialization, such as main industry, foreign exchange earning industry, employment industry and leading industry.
In 1952, China's textile industry achieved a total industrial output value of 9 billion 430 million yuan, accounting for 27.5% of the national industry, with an export volume of 43 million US dollars, accounting for 5.2% of the whole country. After the reform and opening up, as the market economy and opening to the outside world energizing, the textile industry's contribution to the national economy has increased. By 1990, the textile industry accounted for 20.1% of the total exports of the country.
Entering the twenty-first Century, the textile industry has grasped the favorable opportunity for the rapid development of our national economy and the full integration into globalization, and has entered the golden stage of development. In recent years, with the changing international environment and China's entering into the new normal, the industrial economy has seen a great fluctuation, and the textile industry has maintained a steady development trend. In 2018, the main business income of textile enterprises above Designated Size reached 5 trillion and 370 billion 350 million yuan, accounting for 5.3% of all industries above Designated Size in China, and net foreign exchange earning in the whole industry was 250 billion 190 million US dollars, accounting for 71.1% of the whole country.
Realizing the leap forward development of productivity
In the past 70 years, China's textile industry has undergone the process of great emancipation and great development of productivity. The manufacturing capacity has achieved considerable development, and its position in the world has changed far beyond the expectations of the world.
In the early days of the founding of the people's Republic of China, China's textile fiber raw materials mainly rely on cotton based natural fibers. In 1950, the output of cotton yarn in China was 437 thousand tons, accounting for only 7.8% of the world's total, and the annual output of chemical fiber was less than 10 thousand tons, which was ignored in the global economic statistics. In order to solve the problem of raw materials and solve the problem of clothing, China has learned from the experience of industrialized countries and implemented the development idea of "natural fiber and chemical fiber". By 1978, the total amount of fiber processing in China was 2 million 760 thousand tons, accounting for 10% of the world's total. In 1996, fiber processing capacity first broke through the 10 million ton mark, accounting for 22% of the world's total. In 2018, the total fiber processing in China was about 54 million 600 thousand tons, accounting for about 55% of the total fiber in the world. The output of chemical fiber exceeded 50 million tons, accounting for more than 2/3 of the world's chemical fiber production.
Today, as the largest textile country in the world, China's textile industry accounts for more than 50% of the world's total economic output. It not only effectively meets China's 1/5 population in the world, and accounts for nearly 1/3 of the world's fiber consumption demand, but also provides about 20000000 tons of high-quality fiber products for other countries. It has become the core power to support the smooth operation of the world textile industry system and an important industrial platform for promoting global economic and cultural coordination and cooperation.
Forming a sound and complete industrial system.
With the expansion of manufacturing scale, China's textile industry chain continues to extend, and gradually form the world's most perfect modern textile manufacturing industry system. From upstream fiber raw materials supply, design research and development, to weaving and dyeing processing, clothing, household, industrial end product manufacturing, textile machinery equipment, etc. The manufacturing capacity and level of each link in the industrial chain rank the highest in the world.
In the early days of the founding of the people's Republic of China, the total output value of China's cotton textile and dyeing industry accounted for 84% of the total industry. The party and the state have adopted a series of policies and measures to restore and develop textile raw material production, so that the processing level of natural fibers and chemical fibers in China has been continuously improved. In 1984, the textile industry formally put forward the key development of clothing, decorative textiles, industrial textiles "three pillars" products, and vigorously develop sophisticated processing products. Since the beginning of the new century, China's chemical fiber industry has been developing vigorously, providing sufficient raw material guarantee for the textile industry to meet domestic demand and heading for the international market. The two categories of household and industry are making rapid progress to meet the needs of consumption and industry. In 2018, the proportion of fiber consumption of the three terminal products in China was 45:27:28, and the advantages of modern textile industry system with complete categories, abundant varieties, excellent quality and optimized structure were fully displayed.
After many years of development, the textile industry has become one of the few industrial sectors with the capability of closed-loop innovation in the whole industry chain. The complete infrastructure and industrial support make the industrial chain collaboration and inter industry collaboration have a good foundation and huge development space, and also create a prominent competitive advantage of China's textile industry.
Meeting the needs of people for a better life
"Meeting people's consumption needs" is the primary mission of China's textile industry. Since the founding of new China, the party and the state have been committed to ensuring and improving people's livelihood and gradually solving many major livelihood problems in China's society. Among them, the "dressing problem" is one of the earliest and best livelihood issues.
At the beginning of the founding of the people's Republic of China, the material life of our people was deficient, and the per capita consumption of fiber was less than 1 kilograms per person. After years of development, by 1990, when China basically solved the problem of food and clothing for the people, the per capita annual fiber consumption increased to 4 kilograms. Since the beginning of the new century, the rapid development of China's national economy has led to a continuous increase in the income of urban and rural residents, and the expansion of the domestic demand market has entered the golden cycle, providing a strong driving force for the textile industry. The development level of the textile industry has also entered a stage of rapid upgrading. Fiber and yarn and fabric varieties are increasingly diversified, and the variety of terminal products is more abundant, which effectively meets the growing material demand of the people. In 2005, China's per capita fiber consumption reached 13 kg, which has surpassed the world average level of 11.1 kg in the past year. In 2008, China's per capita fiber consumption exceeded 15 kilograms, and in 2015 exceeded 20 kilograms, of which industrial fiber consumption increased greatly, and the quantity and structure of fiber consumption in China gradually approached the level of moderately developed countries. In 2018, fiber consumption reached 22.4 kg.
The textile industry has not only created an increasingly rich and better clothing for our country's population of over one billion, but also played an important role in improving the material life of our people, cultural inheritance and integration, medical and health, environmental protection, geotechnical engineering, transportation, national defense, defense, and many other applications. It also played a great role in absorbing employment and played a prominent role in maintaining social stability.
Integration into globalization
China's textile industry is not only the main source of foreign exchange earning and foreign trade surplus in the national economic system, but also actively integrated into the trend of globalization. It takes the prominent industrial strength and the open development concept to shoulder the task of constructing the global textile industry community.
From the early days of the founding of the PRC to the end of the 70s, China's textile industry mainly focused on meeting domestic demand and a small amount of export trade. In 1950, the export volume of China's textile industry was only 26 million dollars, and by 1978, the export volume was only 2 billion 150 million dollars. The reform and opening up has opened the door to the world for the textile industry, and the "three to one complement" export-oriented economic development has pushed the textile industry to the international market. By 1994, China's textile and clothing exports reached 35 billion 550 million US dollars, ranking first in the world. China's accession to the World Trade Organization in 2001 and the full liberalization of the global textile and garment trade in 2005 have become a major historical opportunity for China's textile industry to fully release its competitiveness. In 2018, China's textile and apparel exports amounted to US $276 billion 730 million, accounting for more than 36% of the global textile and clothing trade.
While developing foreign trade, China's textile industry actively uses foreign resources such as raw materials, capital, technology and talents to make up for its shortcomings. In 1978, the textile industry imported 1 billion 120 million US dollars, and by 2011, China's textile industry imported 73 billion 750 million yuan of raw materials, equipment, dyes and auxiliaries. With the enhancement of self supporting ability and the enhancement of the competitiveness of private capital, the textile industry has changed from "Introduction" to "going out" in the way of international resources. Backbone textile enterprises actively build transnational industrial chain and value chain system by establishing raw material bases, processing factories, brands and channels, R & D centers through many ways such as green space investment and capital operation.
Today, as one of the industries with the highest degree of globalization, China's textile industry is adhering to the development concept of win-win cooperation, openness and inclusiveness, with a positive attitude and action to promote the construction of the new world textile industry destiny community.
Technological innovation promotes industrial upgrading
Since the founding of new China, the outstanding achievements of science and technology in China's textile industry are not only considerable, but also continuously improved in innovation level. From the introduction, digestion, absorption and innovation to original innovation, from single product, technological innovation to integrated innovation, the scientific and technological progress of the industry has achieved remarkable results.
Fiber material technology is striding forward. With the continuous development of the complete set of technology of large capacity domestic chemical fiber, by the end of 12th Five-Year, the complete set of daily production of 200 tons of polyester staple fiber and the complete set of differential polyester filament with an annual output of 400 thousand tons have entered the industrialization stage. The upgrading of differential and functional fiber development capabilities has effectively met the needs of downstream applications. Significant breakthroughs have also been made in high performance fibers. A number of fibers such as carbon fiber and aramid fibers have broken the monopoly of foreign countries and entered the industrialization stage. Ultra high molecular weight polyethylene (PE) has entered the international market.
Spinning process continues to upgrade to automation, continuity, high speed and intelligent direction, leading to a significant increase in production efficiency, showing a qualitative leap in the yarn, quality and variety of the product. In 1949, there were about 550 workers in the cotton spinning industry, and since the "13th Five-Year", the whole digital cotton spinning equipment has been completed in industrial research and development, and the employment of 10000 spindles can be reduced to less than 30 people. Textile, dyeing and finishing technology innovation, fabric supply capacity has been greatly improved. Today, the overall self-sufficiency rate of China's textile fabrics is over 95%, the self-sufficiency rate of export clothing fabrics has been significantly improved, and the proportion of clothing exports to general trade has increased to 75.2% in 2018. The processing level of industrial textiles has been improved. It has been widely used in the fields of medical and health, filtration, geotechnical engineering, safety protection and structural enhancement, and has made positive contributions to the development of related fields of national economy.
Driven by scientific and technological innovation, China's textile industry has realized the transformation of high-performance fibers from scratch, from shortage to profit, from quantity to quality in the field of materials. In the field of equipment, it has accelerated the transformation towards intellectualization, greening and service; in the field of technology, textile, dyeing and finishing technology has been continuously innovating, new technologies such as blending, interweaving, and composite technology have been widely applied, and new varieties such as high cost, high density and ultra light are constantly being introduced. In the field of supporting machinery research and development, some products have already competed with the international advanced level, and chemical fibers, spinning, knitting and other equipment have entered a large number of international markets.
In the past 70 years since the founding of new China, China's textile industry has accumulated strong potential for development through the hardships of several generations of textile workers, and has become an important part of the smooth operation of the global textile industry. Standing at the new historical starting point, facing the new challenges and the journey, our industry "not forget the industry to serve the country at the beginning, remember the strong nation and enrich the people" mission, and take the road of "high quality" development, and continue to move towards the goal of "textile power" construction.