Textile and clothing industry is the largest traditional industry in China. It is a large and stable pillar industry in the contemporary Chinese national economy. In the course of building a well-off society in an all-round way, the Chinese society is shouldering the historical mission of realizing the Chinese people's dream of beautiful clothes and beautiful clothes.
From the beginning of the ancient textile "sunrise and orient five stars", China has opened a brilliant handicraft textile industry. As early as the Han Dynasty, the Silk Road and the Silk Road, which were developed by the central and western regions, and the economic, technological and cultural exchanges between the East and the west, had already carried the ancient civilization of China, and influenced and even led the trade, technology and people's livelihood of many countries in Central Asia, Western Asia, southern Europe, Western Europe, Southeast Asia and South Asia with exquisite technology and large-scale commodity production.
At the beginning of the founding of new China, the state attached great importance to the development of China's textile industry.
At the beginning of the founding of new China, China accounted for 22% of the world's population in 1950. At that time, China's textile industry accounted for only 5% of the total cotton spinning spindles (5 million 130 thousand spindles), and the annual output of cotton yarn (437 thousand tons) accounted for only 7.8% of the world's total. In the same year, the total scale of the cotton textile industry in the United States was 21 million 790 thousand spindles, and 1 million 814 thousand tons of cotton yarn was produced, which is four times as large as that of China's cotton textile industry.
After seventy years of rapid and continuous development, China's manufacturing industry has become the universally acknowledged "world factory" in recent years. This is even more true in the textile and garment industry. Since the founding of new China, illiteracy rate has decreased from 80% to 4%, illiteracy among young adults has basically been eliminated, and the consolidation rate of nine years compulsory education is 94.2%, which is the largest basic education in human history. The skill education of various technical schools has enabled the about one billion Chinese to acquire knowledge and culture. When the curtain of reform and opening up in 1978 opened up, miraculous changes took place, and large numbers of people entered factories and became industrial workers. The largest group of them is the textile and garment industry workers.
Thousands of years of cultural tradition have made the textile and garment industry workers diligent and hardworking. They work on average for more than 9.3 hours a day, longer than all OECD member countries.
Since the 80s of last century, China's textile and garment industry has begun to enter the international market of textile and clothing in a large scale under the condition of adequate supply of textiles in the domestic market. From now on, only ten years ago, in 1996, the total export volume of textiles and clothing reached US $37 billion 100 million, and began to rank first in the world (11.7%).
The Tianshan Mountains are covered by cotton fields in the north and south, and hundreds of thousands of square kilometers of cotton fields are everywhere.
China's textile and garment enterprisers, industrial workers and trade personnel form the largest industrial system in the world. Sorting operators, operators and inspectors constitute the busiest production line in the world. Over the past decades, high-quality and cheap labor force has continuously attracted the global industry to shift to China. In 2001, China joined the WTO, opening the gates to the global supply of goods, and releasing the huge capacity of the textile and garment industry. China has become a truly "world factory", the world's largest trade in goods. Today, China's textile industry produces more than half of the world's cotton fabrics and more than 2/3 of its chemical fiber products.
Europe was the cradle of the cotton textile industry. The Chinese cotton textile industry began to catch up with the whole European cotton textile industry until the total scale of 35 million 660 thousand cotton spindles in 1989. In the next 20 years, China's cotton textile industry has been developing rapidly, and by 2010, it has developed to 8.9 times that of the whole European cotton textile industry.
In recent years, with the promotion of relevant national policies, China's carbon fiber industry has developed rapidly.
"Clothing, food, housing and use" five major livelihood issues, clothing and food in the first place. In the past dynasties, Chinese society was constrained by the level of productive forces and production relations, which did not solve the problem of common people's ample food and clothing. At the beginning of the founding of new China, the output of cotton cloth in 1950 was only 4.5 meters, which is indeed a situation of "people's clothing is very few".
The Communist Party of China adheres to the socialist concept of "ruling for the people" and always regards the development of the textile industry as an important part of "ensuring and improving people's livelihood".
After more than 70 years of rapid and continuous development, China's manufacturing industry has become the universally acknowledged "world factory" in recent years. This is even more true in the textile and garment industry.
The production and supply of clothing, home textiles and other consumer goods, dominated by the textile industry, is the first industry in China to bid farewell to the "shortage economy" and transform the seller's market into a buyer's market first. Since the founding of new China, the party and the state have been committed to ensuring and improving people's livelihood. Many major people's livelihood problems have been gradually solved in China. The problem of dressing is the earliest and best solution to the livelihood of the people.
Especially since the new period of reform and opening up, with the solution of the "food and clothing problem", the scene of "blue, black and grey" has disappeared and replaced by costumes and fashion. Fashion and gorgeous home textiles that reflect the spirit of the times and the times have entered ordinary families in the urban and rural areas. The general improvement of people's clothing and quilt has become an important element of "all-round well-off society" and "fashionable China".
In the 70 years since the founding of new China, people are increasingly rich in material, from shortage to abundance and out of the country: 70 years witnessed the rise of China's garment industry. Clothing is also becoming more and more colorful along with the development of economy and the improvement of people's living standard. There are new clothes from sewing and patch three years to every season. Until now, people's clothes are no longer monotonous, single style, diversified in style, personalized in style, emphasis on Technology in production, high-grade in fabrics, and fashionable from "fashionable cloth" to "MadeinChina" nowadays.
In the early days of liberation, Suzhou style dress was the most fashionable dress, and it was the symbol dress of cadres in 50s.
From the early days of the founding of new China to "new three years, old three years, sewing and making up for three years" and then to the "blue, black, gray and green" theme of the whole street, and then to 80s, "bell bottoms" and "bodybuilding pants" became popular for a while, and now brand, individuation, high-end customization, and 70 years since the founding of the people's Republic of China, people's clothing has been keeping warm from the shelter to become more comfortable and outstanding personality and aesthetic feeling. The change of costumes not only tells us how China is going from waste to prosperity, but every change of clothing also represents the progress of China's economic development and consumption upgrading.
In the 50s and 60s of last century, due to the limited economic conditions, our clothes were not only color and style monotonous, but almost everything became "Chuan". At that time, the young children wore coarse clothes, shoes were hand-made cloth shoes, and the young girls wore the very popular Biraghi dress from the Soviet Union, while the young man was a Chinese tunic suit. For ordinary workers and peasants, they are frock clothes. At that time, the most fashionable dress was blue or gray strap, overalls and white shirts.
Biraghi is a transliteration of Russian. In Russian, Biraghi is the meaning of a dress. But because of the unique features of Russian dress, China directly calls this Russian style dress Biraghi.
"In the era of ticket purchase, big brother wore small clothes and his second brother wore it. But when I was wearing it, it was already broken, and I could not see the original color or patches. The oldest old man recalled the clothes of that era, and the most talked about was the story of big brother and second brother.
Most people's impression of the movie "Hawthorn love" is not only the pure love, but also the attention of the protagonist wearing the "Dacron" shirt in the crowd. Indeed, for those who grew up in the 70s and 80s of last century, there must be "Dacron" in deep memory. At that time, with the beginning of China's textile industry, this kind of cloth that could produce many kinds of colors without cotton could not only cause a fashion trend, but also end the coarse cloth era of "big change, old renovation, patch and patch".
In 80s, men's sweaters were basically knitted by their wives themselves.
In the early 80s of last century, with the development of China's reform and opening up and the development of agriculture and light textile industry, the supply of cloth became more and more abundant, and there were more and more kinds of cotton textiles and chemical fiber products. Some clothes that are popular overseas have begun to enter the Chinese market. For example, accompanied by thunderbolt jeans, body building trousers, bell bottoms and bat shirts, not only the color and style of clothes are no longer monotonous, but also the trend clothing is changing rapidly.
In 1984, the movie "red skirt on the street", personality and self become the new label of Chinese women. Chinese clothing has since bid farewell to the single blue and blue two color era.
In the 90s of last century, with the development of the economy, the income and living standard continued to improve, and the clothing market was also flourishing. Besides the style, the brand, texture and fabric of clothes also became the choice standard when buying. Dressing is no longer for keeping away from cold and warmth, but for the expression of temperament, taste and attitude towards life. It is also the constant pursuit of a better life. This is seen from a common saying at that time: "no matter how many officials, they all wear jackets, no matter how big they are, they wear body pants."
After experiencing the shortage of clothing market from the shortage to the surplus, since the 90s of last century, Chinese people no longer blindly pursue fashion or just value clothes in fashion choice, but begin to choose some high-end and comfortable clothing with beautiful and practical features. "Poor mink, rich cotton, big money casual" jingle is the main theme of people's clothing - nature, health, environmental protection, fashion. Moreover, more emphasis is placed on quality and taste. More and more people no longer pursue expensive and famous brands, but prefer small clothes such as customization and private kitchen to show their taste through reasonable collocation. "More and more personalities, more and more diverse, more and more beautiful" become a vivid and powerful portrayal of Chinese costumes since the new century.
On the other hand, during this period, changes in Chinese clothing were also reflected in the purchase channels. With China's accession to the WTO, opening up efforts and the rise of the Internet, Chinese people are no longer limited to commercial super stores and stores, and the popularity of Internet shopping is becoming increasingly popular.
The 2014 APEC conference is an important multilateral diplomatic occasion, with high specification, great influence and worldwide attention. Leaders' clothing should not only convey the idea of "pluralism, openness and inclusiveness", but also conform to the requirements of occasions and personas. It should not only reflect a strong sense of ritual, but also fully show the temperament and demeanor of leaders. This series of garments is not only rigorous, dignified, but also tolerant and atmosphere. In the patterns, they both symbolize auspiciousness, and they are not dazzling, expensive and not obvious. In color, they are both joyful, warm, pure and fashionable. On the whole, the momentum is magnificent and the sense of ritual is strong. It shows the Chinese people's hospitality of having friends coming from afar.
Besides, during this period, Chinese clothing elements also gradually moved towards the world. In 2014, during the period of APEC, the leaders of the participating economies dressed in the traditional Chinese costumes called "Tang costume" took photos before the Museum of science and technology, and became a highlight of the event. Moreover, all kinds of elements, such as patterns and colors with Chinese national characteristics, have been incorporated into the design concept of the major brand clothing, and a "most dazzling national wind" has been quietly blowing up abroad. Silk, which has thousands of years of history in China, has become the favorite new fashion favored by foreign markets because of its soft and smooth material and special health care functions.
The development process of China's textile and garment industry in the past 70 years typically reflects the difficulty of solving a major livelihood problem by a large population country, and it is not easy for a developing country to industrialize. In the 70 years since the founding of new China, the textile and garment industry has seen the emergence of a "big textile nation" under the high priority of the state. It has also reflected the socialist rule of governance and the institutional superiority of socialism. In short, if we take history as a mirror, a "history of the development of China's textile and garment industry" is indeed a treasure house for the historical development of industrial development and national economic development.
With the great development of China's textile and garment industry, China's textile and garment industry has developed into a "world factory". Of course, the hundreds of millions of textile and garment manufacturers who are involved in or have been involved in the magnificent cause of China's textile and garment industry are, of course, more proud.
At present, China has sprung up a number of famous fashion designers such as Wu Haiyan, whose works are full of strong cultural confidence.