The vast Ulat grassland in Inner Mongolia is rich in resources, unique climatic conditions and geographical environment, giving birth to Erlangshan white cashmere goat, which is a rare and precious animal breed in China and even in the world. Its cashmere is thin and slender, soft in handle, strong in tension, good in luster and pure white in color. It enjoys the reputation of "fiber diamond" and "soft gold". It has won the gold award of the international goat Congress in chaigna, Italy for three consecutive years; The meat of ginseng and mutton is of good quality and good quality. For many years, Erlangshan white cashmere goat industry has become the pillar industry of animal husbandry in Ulat grassland.
In recent years, relying on the unique geographical and resource advantages, the Erlangshan white cashmere goat industry has been taken as the development focus in Inner Mongolia Bayannaoer Wulatezhong banner. Under the overall arrangement of "one game of chess" in the whole banner, adhere to the principle of "government led, enterprise main body and mass participation", actively open up green channels for well-known and famous trademark brand enterprises, give more preferential policies in credit and land, pay close attention to the introduction and support of qualified enterprises, and focus on creating independent cashmere brand with local characteristics, Wulat Zhongqi will be built into a national high-quality cashmere production base.
Cashmere goats make farmers and herdsmen rich
Alatenghushaogacha in Wengeng town of Wulat Middle Banner is mostly hilly and mountainous terrain with good grassland conditions. The most purebred Erlangshan white cashmere goat has been kept on the 3000 mu grassland of the herdsman Haitang family. In recent years, with the support of the pilot project of Key Technology Collaborative promotion plan for improving the quality and efficiency of cashmere goats, more than 200 goats in her family have been carefully selected and bred, all of which are of strong physique and excellent cashmere production performance. Begonia according to the expert's suggestion, according to the lamb each period nutrition demand, on time according to the quantity careful feeding.
"My sheep are not only very big, but also have high cashmere yield, and the brightness and length of cashmere are also very good." Begonia told reporters that his family's Erlangshan white cashmere is of particularly good quality. The 700 Jin cashmere cut last year was sold at 125 yuan per catty. Cashmere alone earned nearly 90000 yuan. In addition to more than 100 fattening sheep, the income last year was nearly 200000 yuan.
It is understood that from 2017, Wulat Middle Banner has selected 7-8 core groups with high feeding level and good cashmere quality in the main production area of Erlang mountain white cashmere goat every year as a pilot, carry out the breeding of high-quality cashmere goat, promote the integrated nutrition regulation of ewe and lamb, directional nutrition regulation of cashmere goat, short-term fattening of lamb and cashmere division technology, More than 5000 Erlangshan white cashmere goats have been extended to 32 herdsmen, increasing their income by 1.5 million yuan.
"The cashmere quality of experimental sheep has been significantly improved, the length of villi has been increased, the cashmere yield has been increased by about 150g, the reproductive survival rate has been increased by 30%, the daily gain of lambs is 130 g, and the income of each sheep is about 300 yuan." Wulat Zhongqi Animal Husbandry Service Center Deputy Director Alamus said.
At present, the breeding quantity of Erlangshan white cashmere goat in the hilly and mountainous area of Ulat Middle Banner is stable at 1.1 million. Cashmere production is stable at 560 tons, and the cashmere sales revenue will reach 190 million yuan this year. The breeding of Erlang mountain white cashmere goat has become a gold industry to increase the income of farmers and herdsmen in these areas.
Building cashmere industry chain
Walking into the breeding base of Erlangshan white cashmere goat of Beiping company located in tonghetai breeding center, a white white white cashmere goat is eating grass leisurely in the neat and uniform enclosure. They are charmingly naive in appearance, with soft and dense hair, and they are all full of "beautiful sheep". Here, each sheep wears ear tags, and there is a special growth file to record the stages from birth to growth, to ensure the good quality of each sheep.
"At present, we have 9 such core breeding farms in Wulat Zhongqi, driving 30 core breeding households and more than 1100 industrial consortia. The goal is to gradually improve the cashmere fineness of Erlangshan cashmere goat to below 14.5 microns, so as to be more competitive in the international market." Inner Mongolia Langshan Textile Co., Ltd.
In the process of developing Erlangshan white cashmere goat industry, Wulat central banner has introduced and supported the cultivation of qualified enterprises to upgrade the grade and scale, and focus on creating cashmere independent brand with local characteristics. In 2019, the banner cooperated with Inner Mongolia Beiping textile (Group) Co., Ltd. and relying on tonghetai breeding center to build "enterprise + breeding consortium + high quality cashmere industrialization union + standardized cashmere collection, storage, carding and trading system", and established Erlang mountain white cashmere goat industrialization technology park, The industrialization development system of Erlangshan White Cashmere Goat is forming.
"Up to now, we have established a complete breeding system. This year, we are going to build an industrial park for Erlangshan white cashmere goat, including carding, trading and storage centers. After the construction of the industrial park, the high-quality development of Erlangshan white cashmere industry will be further accelerated." Han Caihong said.
As a national Inner Mongolia cashmere goat (Erlangshan type) seed preservation farm, tonghetai breeding center plays an active role in its own resource advantages. According to the regional function orientation and characteristic industry development foundation, it vigorously develops Erlangshan white cashmere goat industry, and promotes Erlangshan white cashmere goat to scale, standardization, and development Brand and green development direction.
Han Caihong said that this year, the company will invest 80 million yuan to build a 11500 square meter Erlangshan white cashmere cashmere collection, storage, carding and trading center, 3500 square meters industrial R & D center and supporting equipment, build a whole industry chain of integrated development of production, processing and sales, and improve the value-added of industrial value chain and the effect of regional brand premium.
Promote the optimization and upgrading of improved varieties
A good sheep produces good wool. With the development of cashmere industry, seed conservation and breeding is naturally the first step.
A few years ago, due to the herdsmen's pursuit of high yield and high return of cashmere, a large number of foreign cashmere goats were introduced for crossbreeding. The cashmere quality was greatly damaged, the fineness of cashmere fiber became thicker, the cashmere quality became brittle and the flexibility decreased. The number of core groups of pure bred Erlangshan white cashmere goat was significantly reduced, and the population was on the verge of extinction.
Bian Qiaohong, deputy director of Bayannaoer green industry development office, told reporters that in order to protect Erlangshan white cashmere goat as a high-quality variety and slow down the degradation rate, in 2018, the original Ministry of agriculture officially approved the registration and protection of agricultural products geographical indications for "Bayannur Erlang mountain white cashmere goat", The government of the autonomous region has issued the implementation plan of protecting White Cashmere Goat and Implementing Opinions on vitalizing cashmere goat industry. Erlangshan white cashmere goat has been listed in the seed conservation project sequence to carry out breeding and breeding. Bayannur City has also taken a series of measures such as seed subsidy and implementation of seed protection project to promote the industrial development. At present, the number of Erlangshan white cashmere goats in the city has reached 2.48 million. During this period, Inner Mongolia Zhongke Zhengbiao Biotechnology Co., Ltd. played an important role.
"In the past 10 years, our team has been committed to the breeding, improvement and propagation of white cashmere goats." Li Zhen, general manager of Inner Mongolia Zhongke Zhengbiao Biotechnology Co., Ltd., said that from 2013 to 2014, the company's scientific research team carried instruments and walked in the deep mountain hinterland of Wulat Middle Banner, Urad rear banner, etoke banner, Alxa Left Banner, Alxa Right Banner and Tibet, and collected more than 30000 cashmere goat blood samples and cashmere samples. At the beginning of 2014, they screened thousands of sheep brought back from different places, established a core group of 500 sheep, used the world's most advanced genome-assisted breeding technology to accurately screen and select seeds. After observing them for two years, they finally found the "king of sheep" - a pure breed Erlang Cashmere Goat with 13.89 micron ultra-fine cashmere and stable traits. After that, the embryo was successfully transferred into the uterus of the surrogate ewe through numerous repetitions and failures. Finally, the world's first superfine somatic clone cashmere goat, micamil, was successfully produced in 2016 for the purpose of expansion, with a villus fineness of 13.8 microns. After that, the second generation of rice was transferred by nature. At the same time, with the support of the major science and technology projects of the autonomous region and the coordination and help of the government, the company has also built a breeding and breeding base for superfine cashmere goats, a germplasm resource bank, and a high standard biotechnology laboratory, etc., so as to continue to do a good job in "Cashmere articles" from the aspects of variety selection, feed ratio and breeding technology.
"Erlangshan White Cashmere Goat is a" gold lettered signboard "in Bayannaoer's high-quality livestock products. It is our duty to protect and utilize it. Through the guidance of the government, the guidance of enterprises and the participation of herdsmen, we will gradually build an integrated development system of breeding, breeding and promotion of" government + enterprise + breeding cooperative households ", so as to create a high-quality provenance base and export base of Erlangshan white cashmere goat, Boost the development of Erlangshan white cashmere goat industry Li Zhen said confidently.
(source: Farmers Daily)