To visit the Uygur family in Xinjiang, you will feel the warmth and charm of the Uygur people from the sea of flowers and the feel of the Uygur nationality. The Uygur flower felt making technology has a long history and high artistic value in Xinjiang. In June 2008, the technology was included in the national intangible cultural heritage project. In recent years, with the excavation, collation and protection of traditional handicrafts, Uyghur felt technology has been developing new vitality and vitality in the inheritance and development.
Aesthetics embodied in flower felt
The Uyghur language is called "rolling mats", and it can be divided into three parts. Rolling felt, printed felt and embroidery felt And so on.
There are two kinds of rolling felt. One is pure color wool and color wool according to the pattern of one time rolling. One is to roll some white wool into the bottom felt, then dye some of the white wool into various colors, and then roll it on the bottom felt again. 。 In the rolling process, first draw a good pattern on the curtain of the splinter grass, then fill in the various colored wool on the draft of the good design, then spread the variegated bottom hair, evenly sprinkle warm water on the bottom hair, then press it flat. Finally, the curtain of the splinter splinter is rolled up and bundled, and the rolled curtain is rolled. The traditional rolling method is that the craftsman rolls with his arms, pedals, or pulls from all directions with a rope. After rolling, the curtain is opened, and the edges of the felt need to be tassed and then dried. The printed felt is to wet the finished single color felt, so that the felt can be stained with color, and then stamped with wooden pattern, and the patterns and colors will be printed on the woolen felt. The embroidered felt is embroidered with colored needlework on the colored felt.
Uyghur tapestry is divided into colourless and colored systems. 。 The colorless system is mainly made of black, white and brown colours in raw wool. There is no dyeing procedure for the flower felt, and the felt felt is simple and simple. 。 The colored department is to dye white wool into bright red, yellow, blue, green, and so on, and then carry out color matching. The flower felt is rich in pattern and typical patterns include: 30 kinds of patterns, such as cage flower, big end flower, Ishi Iwaka, pomegranate flower, and Nava Guli, can be matched into many different patterns in the production process.
The process of rolling felt is time-consuming and time-consuming, but it is durable and has clear patterns. So it is widely spread in Xinjiang. 。 The technology of felting in Xinjiang has a long history. It can be traced back to the prosperous 1~3 century of the ancient Silk Road. Among the numerous unearthed relics in Xinjiang, there are the felt hats of the 1~3 century unearthed from the ancient tombs of Kroraina. At present, the processing technology of embroidered felt and printed felt has been lost.
Traditional skills are lost.
Uygur traditional tapestry has a long history of inheritance, but under the influence of modern industrialization, various Uygur traditional tapestry not only reduced its application scope, but also changed colors, techniques and patterns to varying degrees.
With the improvement of people's living standard, the tapestry is gradually replaced by all kinds of woolen fabrics, and its handicraft is also faced with the plight of lost. 。 If the carpet processed with acrylic thread is cheap, short working hours, less labor force, and is not easily damaged by insect bites and uneasy to remove hair, it will slowly occupy the position of the flower felt in the Uygur textile market, resulting in a reduction in the consumption of the blankets.
Taping is a skill with long working hours and much needed labor. But because of the small number of customers and the poor income of craftsmen, many of them have given up traditional folk felting techniques. As a result, the number of felting artists has been greatly reduced, and the mentoring inheritance has been unable to maintain. Few people are willing to learn the craft. A survey of entrepreneurial teams has found that many young people say they will not do or want to make felt. Many people have lost interest in it. The survey also found that young people under the age of 30 had never made flower felt. They only knew it was an important daily article of the nation and a cultural and emotional inheritance.
At present, the Uygur traditional flower felt technology is becoming more and more serious. First, the processing machine is inefficient, the traditional Uygur felt technology is made by hand, but it takes a long time and requires a lot of labor. Therefore, the Uygur folk invented some processing machines, but because of the backward technology of equipment, the efficiency is often low. The two is that the product variety is single, and the traditional means of making felt is relatively single, resulting in a variety of varieties, innovation lagging behind, and can not keep up with the pace of the times. The three is the lack of innovation of the felting artists. The tapestry artists living in the remote rural areas have almost no channels to understand, discover and understand the consumption demand of the modern handicraft market, and can not transform and innovate the traditional Uygur traditional felt. The four is the shortage of consumers, the singleness and depilation of flower felt, so that Uygur traditional flower felt can not occupy a place in the urban commercial area, resulting in the consumption crowd only limited to the Uygur consumers in the countryside.
Inheritance and development will change treasures into treasures
Since 2015, The the Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous Region Cultural Hall jointly organized Xinjiang University, Xinjiang Normal University and other universities to hold 11 phases of training for 660 Uygur, Mongolian, Kazakh, Kirgiz and other ethnic groups. 。 Some students have become the leaders of the local heritage. There has been a good situation of "training one person, promoting one" and helping to accurately help the poor.
Some analysts say The cultivation of flower blankets is not accomplished overnight. It is a long-term, scientific and systematic project. 。 However, based on the current situation, only through the regular training of flower felt technology, we can increase the popularity of flower felt technology in a short time and cultivate a relatively basic production of flower felt handicrafts. However, we can not neglect and abandon the long-term scientific and systematic cultivation of intangible cultural talents. For example, we should promote the establishment of a more standardized flower felt technology training organization through the establishment of flower felt production teams all over the country.
Compared with material and cultural heritage, the inheritance and continuity of intangible cultural heritage can be described as "fragile goods". It is more likely to break the chain of inheritance, and some areas or projects will often disappear in the dust of history. 。 This harsh reality makes more young artisans feel deeply responsible. Wang Min, head of Xinjiang University's intangible cultural heritage heritage project team and postdoctoral Professor, seems to be innovating on the basis of "strong foundation, expanding horizons and unchanged", using modern aesthetic methods and design concepts that are more easily accepted by modern people, so that these traditional handicrafts, which are far from urban life and public view, can be reentered into modern life in a refreshing way, so that young people will love and accept it.
More Than This, Since 2016, a focus on Xinjiang's non heritage training frontiers has introduced the latest developments in Xinjiang's heritage heritage technology. It has recorded the WeChat's public number, which is the handover of Xinjiang's intangible heritage, making Xinjiang's handicraft brand name card. 。 On this platform, a lot of ideas become real products and go to the market. Wang Min, the director of the "non heritage bazaar" project, once said that people were deeply worried about the unsustainable heritage culture. Today, the Internet has penetrated into the peripheral nerves of the people. The infinite lifestyle of creativity has enriched and influenced the younger generation. It is believed that the vitality of intangible heritage will attract more young eyes and images. Because attention is part of inheritance.